Optical calibration, bathymetry, water column correction and bottom typing of shallow marine areas, using passive remote sensing imageries
Bathymetry and water column correction
at Caicos Bank, Bahamas
4018*4149, 30 m pixel size, UTM zone 18, downloaded from USGS
Using the Panchromatic band for water column correction
to derive water depth and spectral bottom signature:

Landsat 8 OLIP bandset used for this work

Purple_1Blue_2Green_3PAN_4Red_5NIR_6 and SWIR1_7

Please refer to Bora Bora and Sanaa
for use of the PANchromatic band 
and for water column correction
  scene LC80090452014200LGN00
Sep 19th  2014
work done august 2014
DTM seatruth
This is summer time in the Bahamas

DTM seatruth   RMSE=0.73 m
Some conclusions
  • 0-10 m: retrieved depths are ~correct
  • > 10 m in the SE corner: the DTM is not suitable
    • this causes the branching out of the regression
    • retrieved depths are ~correct
ZDTM+0.5m  - Z4SM in centimeters
tide correction applied to ZDTM: 0.50 m

see legend
Z4SM vs ZDTM regression

The SE corner  of the DTM
has very few depth sounding:
most of them are derived from Landsat image (purple)


The SE corner  of the DTM
is quite coarse
and does not cover the whole site
(backdrop is retrieved depth from 

Z4SM vs ZDTM along profile_green
tide correction applied

  • 0-10 m: the regression is correct
  • deeper: calibration is not under control
Quite clearly, the so-called clearer waters
in the SE corner of this image
is the cause of a bad artifact

see location of this profile

The conclusion is:
  • 0-10 m: retrieved depths are ~correct
  • > 10 m in the SE corner: the DTM is not suitable
    • this causes the branching out of the above regression
    • retrieved depths are ~correct
  • layered waters are confirmed
Heterogeneous waters 0-10-30 m
In the above calibrationwe assumed a layered water body with apparent success for water column correction, except that retrieved depths are over-estimated in the 10-30 m depth range
  • 0-10 m:  KBLUEKGREEN=0.62
  • 10-30 m: progressively decreasing to 0.42
Black line: the 10 m retrieved isobath line is shown
Homogeneous waters 0-30 m
Ignoring the problem is not an option
as it yields extremely and unacceptable
water column corrected bottom brightness
over the SE corner of this image (flat blue tone)
  • 0-30 m:  KBLUEKGREEN=0.62

Data and Deglinting

TOA TCC: raw image
logarithmic enhancement
quite a complex atmosphere

BOA TCC deglinted image
logarithmic enhancement
glint regressions over genuine sea-surface clutter
are excellent


Optical calibration, optimized
16U data are scaled to allow for comfortable screen display

Calibration diagram for the whole scene
for bands Blue, Green, Red and NIR
KBLUE/KGREEN is modeled
from 0.62 (0-10 m) to 0.42 at depth

This is done through three -CP... arguments


Calibration diagram for the whole scene
for bands Blue, PAN, Red and NIR

Calibration of the PAN band
still not under goodcontrol
This might be caused by
slight mis-registration of the PAN band
Reflectance (0-1)
of the path radiance Ra for this scene
0.105 0.073 0.047 0.043 0.030 0.015 0.006

Reflectance (0-1)
of the water volume Rw for this scene
0.011 0.015 0.003 0.001 0.0 0.0 0.0


Now ready for Modeling
Smoothing applied
Red and PAN solutions applied

BOA TCC water column corrected
scaled 0-250
no enhancement


Retrieved depth


Bottom typing
SAM classified image
This is September 2014

see legend for SAM

ImageB: average bottom brightness
This is September 2014

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